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Both exoplanets orbit a star called Kepler-138 and were found in 2014. The observations at the time hinted that they were fairly different worlds from one another but that they were made largely of rock. Now, Caroline Piaulet at the University of Montreal and her colleagues have taken a new set of observations using the Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes, as well as the W. M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii, that indicate otherwise.
Domagal-Goldman hopes to collaborate with Fisher and her colleagues to better assess the chemistry of the atmosphere above the water worlds. Meanwhile, Fisher plans to look at how the rate of available phosphorous varies with differing amounts of water.
This online platform is dedicated to raising the visibility of the ocean and showcasing why the ocean matters in climate negotiations and to all life on our planet. It aims to increase knowledge, commitment and action for the ocean-climate nexus during and at key events in the run up to the UN Climate Conference (COP27) in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt this November.
The UNFCCC COP27 will be held in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, at the Sharm El-Sheikh Convention Center with events taking place on 6-18 November 2022. Egypt's COP27 presidency vision includes recognition of the need for global collaboration toward a bold and expeditious response to the ongoing climate crisis, as the window for action is rapidly closing. COP27 will build on the successes of COP26 and facilitate future ambition by providing stakeholders with the opportunity to come together and take the collaborative political action necessary to take on the challenge of climate change in a meaningful and impactful way for the benefit of the planet and all of humanity. The goals set for the COP by the COP27 presidency include raising ambition to achieve immediate, united action to mitigate global warming to well below 2C and to work to keep the 1.5C target alive; making the necessary progress under the COP26 Global Goal on Adaptation to enhance global climate change resilience and assist the most vulnerable communities worldwide; and following up on existing commitments and pledges to make significant progress on the pressing issue of climate finance, which is essential to meeting the goals of the Paris Agreement and for meeting the needs of developing countries.
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The planet is Kepler-186f and was discovered with NASA's Kepler telescope, originally launched in 2009 and recently crippled, but not before gathering enough data that researchers are still analyzing it and making discoveries like this.
Yes, this is kind of a big deal, as it's the "first validated Earth-size planet in the habitable zone of another star," as Elisa Quintana of the SETI Institute at NASA's Ames Research Center explained in a press conference Thursday.
"Some people call these habitable planets, which of course we have no idea if they are," San Francisco State University astronomer Stephen Kane, a member of the discovery team, said in a release. "We simply know that they are in the habitable zone, and that is the best place to start looking for habitable planets."
According to NASA, the planet has a shorter year and might be a little chillier than Earth, depending on its atmosphere. It orbits its sun once every 130 days and only gets a third of the energy from its star that Earth gets from the sun -- that puts it near the outer edge of the habitable zone.
"The discovery of Kepler-186f is a significant step toward finding worlds like our planet Earth," Paul Hertz, NASA's Astrophysics Division director, said in a release. "Future NASA missions, like the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite and the James Webb Space Telescope, will discover the nearest rocky exoplanets and determine their composition and atmospheric conditions, continuing humankind's quest to find truly Earth-like worlds."
Would a very strong ground-quake happening at the very bottom of the planet's ocean floor be able to cause a large tsunami to rise up to the surface of the ocean? If it could, how strong would the ground-quake need to be on the Richter scale in order to do that?
Tsunami travel as shallow water waves; they have a wavelength comparable to, or longer than the depth of the water. A large earthquake can cause rupturing on a scale of hundreds of km, (the boxing day quake caused a rupture of 200km) and so can create a tsunami even in 200km deep water. Such a tsunami would have a wavelength of hundreds of km and a wave height of perhaps a few cm. So this is not the great wave off Kanagawa (which was not a tsunami) but it is a true tsunami, and would be undetectable except with high accuracy gauges.
Tsunamis occur in the wake of large earthquakes. They grow in amplitude because the speed of a water gravity wave is influenced by water depth, causing the wave to 'pile up'. In particular, if the wavelength is (much) greater than the depth of the water, the speed at which a wave will travel is roughly:
where v is the speed, g is the gravity, and d is the depth. So by keeping the dimensions consistent as a wave enter shallower water the wave length (L) is squished proportionally to the change in speed and amplitude (A) grows accordingly:
So even for an earthquake that displaces water over say 500km (e.g. $M_w9.1$ Tohoku earthquake). If the water changes in depth from 500km to 200km (as OP asks), the change in height will only be a factor of:
Now $A_1$ (the original wave height) is generally comparable to the average vertical displacement from the earthquake. On earth, the plate boundary configuration is such that the largest earthquakes occur on shallow-dipping subduction zones such that the corresponding average vertical deformation would rarely exceed 1 meter even in the largest earthquakes. Tohoku for instance had a maximum sea floor displacement of tens of meters (at a dip of approximately 10 degrees). Should your configuration be better suited on your mystery planet (steeper dip), and should there be a potential for larger earthquakes than on earth (say $M_w9.5+$), only then would there be a potential for a sizable tsunami with an amplitude at least as large as the sea floor displacement and potentially larger should the bathymetric change. Certainly a $M_w10+$ would generate a lot (10s of meters) of seafloor displacement, but then, of course, the wavelength would be much bigger than the amplitude.
Have you ever wondered what heavy water tastes like? Indeed, you may be tempted to taste deuterium oxide and find out for yourself. That is what the chemistry Nobel laureate Harold Urey and a colleague did in 1935, reporting that the taste of heavy water was indistinguishable from normal water. This contradicted previous reports that heavy water was sweet or caused a dry and burning sensation in the mouth.
Staying on the theme of idle speculation about water, have you ever wondered what raindrops would look like on other planets? It turns out that despite the huge differences between Earth and Jupiter, Jovian rain is very similar to the stuff that ruins picnics here on Earth.
Promega evaluates initiatives to conserve water in manufacturing, landscaping and other everyday needs at all locations. Examples include collecting rainwater for cleaning and irrigating plants in Australia and water conservation projects at manufacturing sites in California and Wisconsin.
The expectation at NASA's Classroom of the Future is that you will make better choices for your own future and for generations to come when you understand the impact you have on the Earth. New tools and technologies create new and more powerful extensions of what a single human could lift, move, or cut in a day. They create a new responsibility for understanding how our actions and choices influence the direction and rate of change for our planet.
We may need to live 'more lightly' on our home planet, but it is certain that we cannot live on the Earth and have no impact whatsoever on it. Thus it is important that we figure out the best courses of action in light of the information we have now. Let us also be willing to change our minds as new data and understanding come to us from new sources in the future.
When we see interviews with one of the astronauts - one of those fortunate representatives of all humanity who have actually left our planetary cradle for awhile and have seen the Earth from space - we recognize a wonderful, recurring theme, "What a beautiful, special place our home is." What a fabulous sight Planet Earth must be for a human looking down from the vast silence of space. That experience seems to give a different perspective on taking care of 'home'.
The Great Law of the Iroquois suggests that the individual should make no decision about using the Earth's resources until he or she has thought about how that action will impact the group for the next 7 generations! Wouldn't it be great if we could get people today to consider the impact of our environmental decisions just one generation into the future? It would be great if we could recognize the fragility of the planet our children will inherit.
You will make good decisions when you base them on the best information available and consider the impact they will have on the future. Just as the planet we live on changes, so too the quantity and nature of information available to us will change as people like you become the data gatherers and develop new and more efficient ways of studying the Earth. Consider the impact that you will have on our future. Let's explore!
A very important point to make is that water has a critical point around $220$ atm and $370 $ Celsius, so at pressures and temperatures higher than that, gas and liquid water can't exist, only a supercritical fluid. We do not know much about the air pressure of exoplanets, but seeing that Venus has about $100 $ atm atmospheric pressure, we can probably make a guess that an order of magnitude larger might be possible. 2b1af7f3a8