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Design school distinguishes itself from other management strategies because it understands strategy as the process of coming up with ideas. It accomplishes this by employing the famous SWOT model: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats.
The planning school is another prescriptive school. It aims to divide the SWOT-model into neatly defined steps, from analysis of the situation (and the SWOT) to the actual implementation of the strategy. It is most often seen in urban planning, system theory and socialistic systems.
First, a single incorrect prediction can send the entire strategy off course. Second, these kinds of plans require lots of information gathering, synthesis and analysis, and this can take forever! Planning, therefore, can be slow moving and less active or dynamic than other strategies.
This makes the entrepreneurial school inherently descriptive: it analyzes the process of strategy formation itself, describes it and problematizes it, and this process leads to a new strategic direction.
As we saw in the previous book summary, the entrepreneurial school describes who formulates the strategy. But it fails to address the way in which a strategy is carried out. The cognitive school is concerned with the how.
The cognitive school thus serves as a bridge between the prescriptive schools, which claim to objectively analyze an organization and formulate a strategy, and subjective schools like the entrepreneurial school, which openly embrace the subjective perspective of one person.
Like power, culture is always present. However, strategy schools are hesitant to address it. Not the cultural school, however. The cultural school focuses on all those social connections which create culture, in the hope of fostering efficiency and innovation.
For the environmental school, external forces are not a factor in strategy formation, they are the factor. The environmental school makes a conscious effort to remove all choice from their strategy. Instead they simply let their environment shape the strategy.
For the configuration school, strategy formation is a process of transforming the organization from one strategic approach to another, and then transforming the organization itself. The school has two sides: configuration and transformation.
Strategy formation encompasses all ten schools as well as the ones that have yet to be developed. The key is to get beyond the confines of each school and appreciate the wealth of ideas about strategy formation.
No school of thought about strategy formation is a one-size-fits-all solution. Each has its strengths and its limitations. By understanding these pros and cons, however, you can formulate a winning strategy for your organization.
Strategy is the most prestigious but also the most confusing part of business. Managers are constantly bombarded with new jargon and the latest fads promising the magic bullet for every strategic problem. The world of strategy can seem to be an impenetrable jungle. Strategy Safari presents a powerful antidote to the dilemma of needing to know about strategy and yet not being able to find any comprehensible guidelines. This revised edition is a comprehensive, colourful and illuminating tour through the wilds of strategic management.
In this provocative, jargon-free and extremely readable guide, top strategy authors Mintzberg, Ahlstrand & Lampel clearly set out and critique each of the ten major schools of strategic management thinking to help you grasp what you really need to know.
Mintzberg has twice won the McKinsey Award for publishing the best article in the Harvard Business Review (despite his critical stance about the strategy consulting business). He is also credited with co-creating the organigraph, which is taught in business schools.
Mintzberg writes on the topics of management and business strategy, with more than 150 articles and fifteen books to his name. His seminal book, The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning, criticizes some of the practices of strategic planning today.
Perhaps the most distinctive feature of Mintzberg's research findings and writing on business strategy, is that they have often emphasized the importance of emergent strategy, which arises informally at any level in an organisation, as an alternative or a complement to deliberate strategy, which is determined consciously either by top management or with the acquiescence of top management. He has been strongly critical of the stream of strategy literature which focuses predominantly on deliberate strategy.
This school, as the name implies, focuses on the effect or power and politics on strategy. That is, the school interprets how power and politics are used to negotiate strategies in pursuit of specific interests - a process of influence.
Goals can only be achieved with a good plan. They enable managers to give their teams clarity and work towards interim evaluations and final results. However, a clear organisational strategy requires more than just a plan.
Where making a plan is about the intended strategy, patterns are about strategies that have been implemented before. On the one hand, there are strategies that achieved their intended result. On the other hand, there are strategies that still have to be worked out in more detail. 2b1af7f3a8